Connoisseurs of nature were worried about the thought. How is it possible that the same fertilized bee egg in 21 days will turn into a working bee (a female unable to fertilize and lay eggs), and from another - after 16 days - a large, fully developed female, capable of fertilizing and laying eggs created.
The answer to these riddles is royal jelly - the food of the queen mother. Young worker bees secrete a creamy gelatinous substance with a tart taste in the throat glands. It is royal jelly that is used to feed the larvae of worker bees and drones during the first 3 days of their life. But the queen bee has been feeding all her life. Royal jelly allows you to produce bees from the same eggs - workers and mothers, that the queen lives for 4-6 years, and the worker - 30-35 days.
What does royal jelly contain?
The chemical composition of royal jelly fed to queen bees is very rich. It includes, among other things, sex hormones, which significantly affect the rate of development of larvae, size, fertility and lifespan. Usually in one colony, about 100 g of royal jelly is obtained in the season from May to the end of July. Royal jelly resembles mammalian milk in the form of a thick paste, the color of which ranges from light cream to light yellow. It is characterized by a tart sour taste and a specific pungent odor, heavier than water, has an acidic reaction (pH in the range of 3.4 - 4.3). It dissolves well in ethyl alcohol, acetone and ether.
Receiving and storing royal jelly
Milk is obtained from queen cells from mid-May to late July. Beekeepers use various methods of mobilizing bees to raise young queen bees in order to increase the production of royal jelly in the hive. The 2–3-day-old larvae are fed so abundantly that they “swim” in milk. In this way, bees feed a dozen or several dozen larvae. From five such cells, about one gram of milk is collected. Royal jelly is an unstable product, it turns yellow and dries quickly when stored at ambient temperature, and its biological activity is reduced due to the decomposition of many components. Bees consume milk regularly, so they do not store milk for a long time.
Fresh milk is sensitive to light and high temperatures. In a sealed container, it retains its properties for several days at room temperature. Store in the refrigerator at 0-5 ° C for up to one year. Milk can be preserved with alcohol. The most commonly used solution is 10% milk in 40% ethyl alcohol. The creation of such a mixture allows the finished product to be stored in an airtight container in a dark place for one year. An alternative is canned royal jelly with honey. To prepare the mixture, milk is added to liquid honey in an amount from 0.5% to 5%, thoroughly and for a long time mixed. The most effective mixture was considered honey with the addition of 2% royal jelly. Store in a dark place for a year, and in the refrigerator for even longer. Adsorption on powdered lactose gives good results. However, the best preservation method is lyophilization, which allows storage at 0-15 ° C for up to 5 years.
The action of bee milk
One of the most important biological properties of royal jelly is the enhancement of metabolic processes and tissue renewal. This product enhances protein metabolism, increases the number of red blood cells and the level of hemoglobin. It is assumed that the iron and zinc ions that make up its composition contribute significantly to this. In the course of the studies, subjects experienced rapid weight gain, increased vitality, accelerated puberty, increased reproductive activity and prolonged life by about 30% compared to control groups. Animal studies show that royal jelly is a nutritious product that is well absorbed by the body. These values are due to the presence of compounds such as amino acids, sugars, vitamins, bioelements, enzymes and free fatty acids.
Studies have shown that royal jelly accelerates the recovery of soft tissues, shortening the healing time for wounds and burns. It also influenced the renewal of cells responsible for bone healing and prevented decalcification of bones after severe fractures. This led to the fact that bone fractures in experimental rabbits healed almost 3 times faster than in control animals.
Royal jelly also has antibacterial properties. Fresh product has a bacteriostatic effect by inhibiting the growth of bacteria at a concentration of 20 mg / ml, and at a concentration of 100 mg / ml it has a bactericidal effect. It acts on both Staphylococcus aureus and split pneumonia, anthrax and tuberculosis bacilli, and Escherichia coli.
It has been found to inhibit the growth of pathogenic yeasts and molds. In addition, it is known to be active against influenza, mumps and herpes viruses, as well as against protozoa. 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid and royalisine are mainly responsible for antimicrobial activity.
Royal jelly is good for the heart and circulatory system. Animal experiments show that it accelerates the recovery of necrotic heart tissue after experimental heart attack. In addition, it counteracts artificially induced arrhythmias in the heart muscle.
Its effect on blood vessels is twofold. On the one hand, it clearly lowers blood pressure, which is associated with the presence of acetylcholine in it, and on the other hand, it increases it by increasing the secretion of adrenaline. Based on this, it can be assumed that it has the effect of normalizing blood pressure. Moreover, in experimental animals, it has a strong antiatherosclerotic effect.
The significant influence of royal jelly on the hematopoietic system is often emphasized. Especially small doses of this product, up to 10 mg per day, increase the volume of red blood cells and the level of hemoglobin they contain, as well as iron in the blood serum.
Animal studies show that when administered parenterally, royal jelly stimulates the immune system, thereby increasing the body's resistance to infections. Despite this, it was found that in diseases caused by autoimmune aggression, that is, the self-destruction of organs and tissues, it reduces the production of antibodies against its own cells. Based on this, it can be assumed that it regulates the body's defenses.
Royal jelly has properties that protect against harmful ionizing radiation, which is mainly due to the presence of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid in it.
Pharmacological studies show that it has beneficial effects on the central nervous system. Increases the activity of the cerebral cortex. This action is caused, among other things, by gamma-aminobutyric acid, which plays an important role in the conduction of nerve impulses. As a result, milk induces stimulation and a state of physical and mental recovery.
Other properties of royal jelly include its antidiabetic effect, preventing the formation of gout and protecting liver tissue from toxicity.
Medicinal properties and use in medicine
Royal jelly is widely used in dermatology. Recommended for the treatment of difficult healing wounds, including bedsores and burns, with seborrhea and seborrheic eczema, impetigo of hands and feet. Also recommended for the treatment of seborrheic and dental alopecia. A good therapeutic effect is achieved after drinking milk for inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth, throat, tongue and gums, as well as for herpes.
Increases the body's resistance to infections. It has an immunoregulatory effect. It causes a significant increase in the body's resistance to infections by stimulating the production of macrophages and γ-globulin. Due to their immunological properties, they are used for diseases caused by autoimmune aggression such as glomerulonephritis, atopic (allergic) bronchial asthma and rheumatic diseases.
In children, royal jelly is used to treat anemia caused by iron deficiency. Increases the number of red blood cells and the content of hemoglobin.
Good results were obtained with royal jelly in patients with arterial hypertension and cardiac arrhythmia. It is also successfully used for spastic conditions of the vertebral arteries and cerebral embolism.
Also, royal jelly is used for the prevention and treatment of diseases of the digestive tract and internal organs. Duodenal ulcers are particularly sensitive to the effects of this product. It is used in patients with colitis symptoms and in the treatment of various inflammations of the gallbladder, pancreas and liver. It protects liver tissue from various types of toxic substances. It is used to treat the effects of alcoholism and to prevent cirrhosis of the liver. Effectively lowers blood glucose levels.
It is also used to treat renal and adrenal insufficiency. It has a diuretic effect, which helps in the treatment of obesity. It is useful in treating ovarian failure and infectious diseases such as brucellosis and influenza. Royal jelly has also been found to be beneficial in the treatment of certain respiratory conditions. Milk promotes the renewal of the bronchial mucosa and promotes better penetration of drugs into the lower respiratory tract. In addition, it is very helpful in preventing colds.
Royal jelly is successfully used for rheumatic diseases, including rheumatic diseases, rheumatoid arthritis of the spine, osteoarthritis, as well as for neuralgia, migraines and post-traumatic pain.
Use in cosmetics
Royal jelly is also widely used in cosmetics. Due to its skin renewal properties, it is an essential component of creams, lotions and lotions for care and nutrition for dry, normal and oily skin. Creams and balms with royal jelly stimulate cellular metabolism and normalize the secretion of the sebaceous glands. The milk has a beneficial tonic effect on the skin and improves its hydration and elasticity. Its content in cosmetic preparations ranges from 0.5 to 10%.
Royal jelly is available at pharmacies, herbalists and health food stores. It comes in the form of lozenges, capsules and syrup. Preparations containing royal jelly are administered orally, sublingually (this method is considered the most effective). Recommended doses are 50 to 300 mg for an adult, half the dose for children. Use in the morning, 1 hour before breakfast or 2-3 hours after dinner.
It is best to take pure milk sublingually (hold it under the tongue for a few minutes), after rinsing your mouth. The course of treatment should last from 3-4 weeks to two months and be repeated once or twice a year. It is recommended to carry out two procedures a year as a preventive measure, maintaining milk with pollen. A mixture of honey and milk (2 grams of milk per 200 grams of honey). Use a teaspoon of the mixture twice a day. Time: one hour before meals and 2-3 hours after dinner. Use canned milk twice a day, 15-20 drops per tablespoon of warm water, one hour before meals and 2-3 hours after lunch.